اثر بازی‌های شناختی رایانه‌ای بر مهارت‌های ارتباطی و تنظیم هیجان کودکان دارای اختلال طیف اتیسم

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 Ph.D. in general psychology, Ilam Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ilam, Iran.

2 Assistant professor in psychology, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

3 Professor, Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

4 Assistant professor in psychology, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

5 M.A. in psychology, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

10.22038/jfmh.2022.20659

چکیده

مقدمه: برنامه های مداخله ای متفاوتی برای کودکان اوتیستیک ارائه و اجرا می شود. به دلیل استفاده از ابزارهای مصنوعی و ماشینی، بازی های رایانه ای ممکن است در آموزش کودکان اوتیسم موثر باشد. این پژوهش با هدف تعیین اثربخشی بازی های رایانه ای بر مهارت های ارتباطی و تنظیم هیجانی کودکان مبتلا به اختلالات طیف اوتیسم انجام شد.
روش‌ کار: جامعه آماری این پژوهش شامل کلیه کودکان مبتلا به اختلال اوتیسم 7 تا 9 ساله مرکز توانبخشی شهر تهران در سال 1398 بود که به این منظور 20 کودک به روش نمونه‌گیری در دسترس انتخاب و به‌طور تصادفی در دو گروه مساوی قرار گرفتند.  ابزار تحقیق شامل پرسشنامه ارتباطات اجتماعی (روتر، بایلی و لورد، 2003) و چک لیست تنظیم هیجان (شیلدز و کیکتی، 1998) بود. اعضای آزمایش در 12 جلسه 45 دقیقه ای سه بار در هفته با بازی های رایانه ای آموزش دیدند. داده ها با استفاده از تحلیل کوواریانس و نرم افزار SPSS مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت.
یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان داد که بازی‌های رایانه‌ای بر تنظیم هیجان کودکان مبتلا به اختلال اوتیسم تأثیر معناداری دارد (P< 0.01). اما این تأثیر بر مهارت های ارتباطی معنی دار نبود (P> 0.05).
نتیجه‌گیری: می‌توان نتیجه گرفت که آموزش با بازی‌های رایانه‌ای، تنظیم هیجانی کودکان مبتلا به اختلال اوتیسم را بهبود می‌بخشد. بنابراین خانواده ها، موسسات آموزشی و مراکز خدمات روانشناسی و مشاوره می توانند از این روش برای بهبود این اختلال بهره مند شوند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


  1.  

    1. Ahmadi J, Safari T, Hemmatian M, Khalili Z. [Gilliam Autism Diagnostic Test Guide: Persian version]. 1st ed. Tehran: Jihad University; 2016. (Persian)
    2. Ganji M, Ganji H. [Abnormal psychology based on DSM5]. 3rd ed. Tehran: Savalan; 2021. (Persian)
    3. Bishop SL, Huerta M, Gotham K, Alexandra Havdahl K, Pickles A, Duncan A, et al. The autism symptom interview, school‐age: A brief telephone interview to identify autism spectrum disorders in 5‐to‐12‐year‐old children. Autism Res 2017; 10(1): 78-88.
    4. Tonnsen BL, Boan AD, Bradley CC, Charles J, Cohen A, Carpenter LA. Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders among children with intellectual disability. Am J Intellect Dev Disabil 2016; 121(6): 487-500.
    5. Volkmar F, Rogers S, Paul R, Pelphrey KA. Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders. 4th ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons; 2014.
    6. Samson AC, Huber O, Gross JJ. Emotion regulation in Asperger’s syndrome and high-functioning autism. Emotion 2012; 12(4): 659-65.
    7. Mazefsky CA, Herrington J, Siegel M, Scarpa A, Maddox BB, Scahill L, et al. The role of emotion regulation in autism spectrum disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2013; 52(7): 679-88.
    8. Hill E, Berthoz S, Frith U. Brief report: Cognitive processing of own emotions in individuals with autistic spectrum disorder and in their relatives. J Autism Dev Disord 2004; 34(2): 229-35.
    9. Didehbani N, Allen T, Kandalaft M, Krawczyk D, Chapman S. Virtual reality social cognition training for children with high functioning autism. Comput Hum Behav 2016; 62: 703-11.
    10. Sadook V, Sadook BJ, Ruiz P. [Kaplan and Sadok psychiatric summary: Based on DSM-5]. Ganji M, Ganji H. (translators). Tehran: Savalan; 2016. (Persian)
    11. Fridenson-Hayo Sh, Berggren S, Lassalle A, Tal Sh, Pigat D, Bolte S, et al. Basic and complex emotion recognition in children with autism: Cross-cultural findings. Molecular Autism 2016; 7(52): 1-11.
    12. American Psychiatric Association. [Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders]. Seyed Mohammadi Y. (translator). Tehran: Ravan; 2015. (Persian)
    13. Poushneh K, Siam N, Abedi M. [The effectiveness of reciprocal imitation training on reducing symptoms of children with autism disorder]. Psychology of exceptional individuals journal 2014; 4: 1-19. (Persian)
    14. Yan Ch, Charragain C. Teaching emotion recognition skills to children with autism. J Autism Dev Disord 2010; 40: 1505-11.
    15. Trevisan DA, Birmingham E. Are emotion recognition abilities related to everyday social functioning in ASD? A meta-analysis. Res Autism Spectr Disord 2016; 32: 24-42.
    16. Mayer RE. Computer games in education. Annu Rev Psychol 2019; 70(1): 531-49.
    17. Moradi Sabzevar M. [Investigate cognitive games]. Project report. Tehran: University of Tehran; 2014: 1-154. (Persian)
    18. Blumberg FC, Deater‐Deckard K, Calvert SL, Flynn RM, Green CS, Arnold D, et al. Digital games as a context for children's cognitive development: Research recommendations and policy considerations. Soc Policy Rep 2019; 32(1): 1-33.
    19. Morrison M, Krugman DM. A look at mass and computer mediated technologies: understanding the roles of television and computer in the home. J Broadcast Electron Media 2001; 45(1): 135-61.
    20. Akrami L, Sedaghat Z. [The effect of computer games on children with autism spectrum disorder]. Proceeding of the 2nd National Congress of Computer Games, Opportunities and Challenges, Isfahan-Iran, 2017. (Persian)
    21. Ploog BO, Scharf A, Nelson D, Brooks PJ. Use of computer-assisted technologies (CAT) to enhance social, communicative, and language development in children with autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord 2013; 43(2): 301-22.
    22. Irani A, Moradi H, Kashani Vahid L. A serious game to learn and enhance emotional skills for children: A pilot study. Proceedings of 1st Digital Games Research Conference Trends, Technologies and Applications, 23 Nov 2017, University of Science and Technology, Iran, 2017: 1-9. (Persian)
    23. Lobel A. The relationship between gaming & emotion regulation development. MS. Dissertation. Netherlands: University Nijmegen, 2016.
    24. Atashak M, Baradaran B, Ahmadvand M. [The effect of educational computer games on students’ social skill and their educational achievement]. Journal of technology of education 2013; 7(4): 297-305. (Persian)
    25. Mairena MÁ, Mora-Guiard J, Malinverni L, Padillo V, Valero L, Hervás A, et al. A full-body interactive videogame used as a tool to foster social initiation conducts in children with autism spectrum disorders. Res Autism Spectr Disord 2019; 67: 101438.
    26. Villani D, Carissoli C, Triberti S, Marchetti A, Gilli G, Riva G. Videogames for emotion regulation: A systematic review. Games Health J 2018; 7(2): 85-99.
    27. Rajabiyan Dehzireh M, Dortaj F, Pourroostaei Ardakani S, Esmaeili Gojar S. [The Effect of the use instructional computer games on cognitive emotion regulation and students' Mindfulness]. Journal of Technology of Education 2019; 13(4): 681-94. (Persian)
    28. Mohammadi Nasab H. [Investigating the impact of computer games on creative performance and emotional reactions]. Proceeding of the 2th National Congress of Computer Games; Opportunities and Challenges; 2017; Feb 15, Esfahan, Iran 2017. (Persian)
    29. Nouri Rad F, Bonyadi F. [Understanding the relationship between computer games and emotional intelligence components among Tehrani male students]. Mass media scientific quarterly 2016; 26(4): 149-73. (Persian)
    30. Ramezani Farani A, Gharraaeei B, Salek Ebrahimi L. [The effectiveness of a computer-based intervention on improving social skills, face processing and emotion recognition in students with autism spectrum disorder]. Journal of modern psychological researches 2016; 11: 81-104. (Persian)
    31. Sayehmiri K. [Applied biostatistics and research method]. 2nd ed. Ilam: Nowruzi; 2014. (Persian)
    32. Rutter M, Bailey A, Lord C. Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ). Los Angeles: Western psychological services; 2003.
    33. Sasanfar R, Haddad S, Tolouei A, Ghadami M, Yo D, Santanglo S. Paternal age increases the risk for autism in an Iranian population sample. Mol Autism 2010; 1(2): 2-10.
    34. Shields A, Cicchetti D. Reactive aggression among maltreated children: The role of attention and emotion dysregulation. J Clin Child Psychol 1998; 27: 381-95.
    35. Molina P, Nives Sala M, Zappulla C, Bonfigliuoli C, Cavioni V, Assunta Zanetti M, et al. The emotion regulation checklist–Italian translation. Validation of parent and teacher versions. Eur J Dev Psychol 2014; 11(5): 624-34.
    36. Mahmoudi M, Borjali A, Alizadeh H, Ghobari-Bonab B, Ekhtiari H, Akbari-Zardkhaneh S. [Emotion regulation in children with learning disorders and normal children]. Research in school and virtual learning 2016; 4: 69-84. (Persian)