Validation of parent and teacher versions of emotion regulation checklist in the Iranian setting: Factorial structure and associations with children’s social-behavioral functioning

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی


1 Ph.D. student, Department of Psychology, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant professor, Department of Psychology, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

3 M.A. in child and adolescent clinical psychology, Department of Psychology, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

4 M.A. in psychology, Department of Psychology, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran


Introduction: The Emotion Regulation Checklist (ERC) is widely used to evaluate children’s emotional development in terms of Emotion Regulation (ER) and Negativity/Lability (LN). It uses parents and/or teachers as informants. The purpose of this study was to validate the Iranian version of ERC among preschool and primary school-aged children, reported by parents and teachers.
Materials and Methods: The ERC was translated to Persian through a translation and back-translation procedure. Then, it was filled out by 549 mothers of children, aged 4 to 12 years (289 school-aged children and 260 preschool children), and 119 teachers of 295 preschool students aged 4 to 6 years. These participants were selected through convenience sampling from preschools and primary schools in different regions of Tehran and Karaj in 2019. To data analysis, descriptive statistics, correlation coefficients, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis were used in SPSS-25 and AMOS-24.
Results: The results of exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the two-factor model of both parent and teacher versions of the Persian checklist with scales indicating satisfactory internal consistency. Also, the two subscales of ERC were associated, in the expected direction, with indices of behavioral, emotional, and social functioning of children. This finding provided further evidence for the validity of the ERC.
Conclusion: Results of this study provided evidence for the validity of both parent and teacher versions of ERC in the Iranian setting.


  1. Schlesier J, Roden I, Moschner B. Emotion regulation in primary school children: A systematic review. Child Youth Serv Rev 2019; 1(100): 239-57.
  2. Shewark EA, Ramos AM, Liu C, Ganiban JM, Fosco G, Shaw DS, et al. The role of child negative emotionality in parenting and child adjustment: Gene–environment interplay. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2021; 62(12): 1453-61.
  3. Din NS, Ahmad M. Emotional regulation on negative affect and aggression: A review. Asian People Journal (APJ) 2021; 4(2): 29-44.
  4. Løvaas ME, Sund AM, Patras J, Martinsen K, Hjemdal O, Neumer SP, et al. Emotion regulation and its relation to symptoms of anxiety and depression in children aged 8–12 years: does parental gender play a differentiating role? BMC Psychol 2018; 6(1): 42.
  5. Girgis M, Paparo J, Kneebone I. A systematic review of emotion regulation measurement in children and adolescents diagnosed with intellectual disabilities. J Intellect Dev Disabil 2021; 46(1): 90-99.
  6. Hamaidi DA, Mattar JW, Arouri YM. Emotion regulation and its relationship to social competence among kindergarten children in Jordan. European journal of contemporary education 2021; 10(1): 66-76.
  7. Shields AM, Cicchetti D. The development of an emotion regulation assessment battery: Reliability and validity among at-risk grade-school children. Poster session presented at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development‚ Indianapolis‚ IN; 1995.
  8. Shields A, Cicchetti D. Emotion regulation among school-age children: the development and validation of a new criterion Q-sort scale. Dev Psychol 1997; 33(6): 906.
  9. Reis AH, Oliveira SE, Bandeira DR, Andrade NC, Abreu N, Sperb TM. Emotion Regulation Checklist (ERC): Preliminary studies of cross-cultural adaptation and validation for use in Brazil. Temas em psicologia 2016; 24(1): 97-116.
  10. Molina P, Sala MN, Zappulla C, Bonfigliuoli C, Cavioni V, Zanetti MA, et al. The Emotion Regulation Checklist–Italian translation. Validation of parent and teacher versions. Eur J Dev Psychol 2014; 11(5): 624-34.
  11. Gullone E, Taffe J. The emotion regulation questionnaire for children and adolescents (ERQ–CA): a psychometric evaluation. Psychol Assess 2012; 24(2): 409.
  12. Danisman S, Dereli IE, Akin DZ, Yaya D. Examining the psychometric properties of the Emotional Regulation Checklist in 4-and 5-year-old preschoolers. Rev Electron Investig Psicoeduc Psigopedag 2016; 14(3): 534-56.
  13. Goodman R. Psychometric properties of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2001; 40(11): 1337-45.
  14. Tehranidoust M, Shahrivar Z, Pakbaz B, Rezaei A, Ahmadi F. [Validity of Farsi version of strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ)]. Advances in cognitive science 2007; 8(4): 33-9. (Persian)
  15. Vafaie M, Roshan M. [Investigating the relationship between family risk factors and protectors with adolescents’ abilities and emotional-behavioral disorders]. Contemporary psychology 2007; 13(2): 4-17. (Persian)
  16. Gresham FM, Elliott SN. Social skills rating system manual. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service; 1990.
  17. Shahim S. [Standardization of social skills rating system for preschool children]. Iranian journal of psychiatry and clinical psychology 2005; 11(2): 176-86. (Persian)
  18. Achenbach TM, Rescorla LA. Manual for the ASEBA school-age forms and profiles: Child behavior checklist for ages 6-18, teacher's report form, youth self-report: An integrated system of multi-informant assessment. University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, and Families; 2001.
  19. Minaee A. [Adaptation and standardization of child behavior checklist, youth self-report, and teacher’s report forms]. Journal of exceptional children 2006; 6(1): 529-58. (Persian)
  20. Kline RB. Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. 2nd ed. New York: Guilford; 2005: 3.
  21. Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS. Using multivariate statistics. 7th ed. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon; 2019.
  22. Hu LT, Bentler PM. Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Struct Equ Modeling 1999; 6(1): 1-55.
  23. McCallum RC, Browne MW, Sugawara HM. Power analysis and determination of sample size for covariance structure modeling. Psychol Methods 1996; 1(2): 130.
  24. Nunnally JC. Psychometric Theory 3E. New York, NY: Tata McGraw-Hill Education; 1994.
  25. Kim H, Page T. Emotional bonds with parents, emotion regulation, and school-related behavior problems among elementary school truants. J Child Fam Stud 2013; 22(6): 869-78.
  26. Langevin R, Hébert M, Cossette L. Emotion regulation as a mediator of the relation between sexual abuse and behavior problems in preschoolers. Child Abuse Negl 2015; 46: 16-26.