Reliability and validity of Farsi version of Parsian and Dunning spirituality questionnaire

Document Type : Research Paper


1 MA student in clinical psychology, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant professor of psychology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

3 Department of psychology, Allameh Tabatabayi University, Tehran, Iran

4 Ph.D. student of psychology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran


Introduction: Spirituality is being increasingly recognized as an important aspect of the health and wellbeing of people with chronic health conditions. Spirituality gives meaning to people’s lives and may be an important coping resource that enables people with chronic conditions to deal with their condition. Thus the goal of this study was to investigate the psychometric characteristics of the spiritual questionnaire (Parsian and Dunning, 2009).
 Materials and Methods: The research sample consisted of 348 university students (141 men and 206 women) (2012-2013). The participants were selected through convenience sampling method and they fulfilled spiritual questionnaire (Parsian and Dunning, 2009). Applied methods were: construct validity (explanatory factor analysis and internal consistency), convergent validity, reliability (internal consistency), and Pearson correlation index. Data analyzed by SPSS software version 20.
 Results: In explanatory factor analysis, four factors (self-awareness, importance of spiritual beliefs, spiritual practices, and spiritual needs) were extracted. The reliability of this test was assessed and Cronbach's alpha for these factors was 0.84, 0.90, 0.77, and 0.82 respectively. The global Cronbach's alpha of the questionnaire was 0.90.
 Conclusion: Considering the results of this study, this spirituality questionnaire has good validity and reliability, and can be used to evaluate spirituality in Iranian population.