The standardization of spiritual coping questionnaire in student population

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Professor, Department of Educational Psychology and Counseling, Faculty of Psychology and Education, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant professor, Department of Psychology, Neyshabur Branch, Islamic Azad University, Neyshabur, Iran

3 Professor, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Education, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

4 Associate professor, Department of Educational Psychology and Counseling, Faculty of Psychology and Education, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


Introduction: Spiritual coping have an important role in confronting stressful events in life. Therefore, the aim of the present study was standardization of the spiritual coping questionnaire in students.
Materials and Methods: In descriptive- correlational research, 600 undergraduate students of public universities in Tehran were selected using multistage cluster sampling. The Spiritual Coping Questionnaire (SCQ), Brief Religious Coping Scale (Brief-RCOPE), Spiritual Coping Strategies scale (SCS), Spiritual Intelligence Scale (SIS) and Iranian Mental Health Scale for students (IMHS) were administered on the participants. The research data were analyzed by the SPSS and LISREL software as well as Pearson correlation, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis.
Results: The internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha) for total score, positive and negative spiritual coping were 0.84, 0.90 and 0.84, respectively. The reliability coefficient relevant to subscales of positive and negative spiritual coping was 0.57 to 0.90. The findings of exploratory factor analysis suggested two accessible factors of positive and negative spiritual coping in the original version of the Persian version. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis exhibit the seven-factor model of this questionnaire has an acceptable fit with data. Finally, this questionnaire has a criterion, convergent, and divergent validity.
Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that Spiritual Coping Questionnaire has an appropriate reliability and validity to measure the spiritual coping of Iranian students.


  1. Khodayarifard M, Mansouri A, Besharat MA, Gholamali-Lavasani M. [Religiously and spiritually integrated treatments and generalized anxiety disorder]. J Res Behav Sci 2017; 15(1): 126-34. (Persian)
  2. Valcanti CC, Chaves EC, Mesquita AC, Nogueira DA, de Carvalho EC. Religious/spiritual coping in people with chronic kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis. Rev Esc Enferm USP 2012; 46(4): 837-43.
  3. Delgado-Guay MO, Hui D, Parsons HA, Govan K, De la Cruz M, Thorney S, Bruera E. Spirituality, religiosity, and spiritual pain in advanced cancer patients. J Pain Symptom Manage 2011; 41(6): 986-94.
  4. Pargament KI. Spiritually integrated psychotherapy: Understanding and addressing the sacred. New York, NY: Guilford; 2007.
  5. Koenig HG. Spirituality and mental health. Int J Appl Psychoanal Stud 2010; 7(2): 116-22.
  6. Koenig HG. Religion, spirituality, and health: The research and clinical implications. ISRN Psychiatry 2012; 16: 278730.
  7. CharzyƄska E. Multidimensional approach toward spiritual coping: Construction and validation of the Spiritual Coping Questionnaire (SCQ). J Relig Health 2015; 54(5): 1629-46.
  8. Worthington Jr EL, Hook JA, Davis DE, McDaniel MA. Religion and spirituality. J Clin Psychol 2011; 67(2): 204-14.
  9. Shelton SF, Mabe PA. Spiritual coping among chronically ill children. In: Ambrose SD. Religion and psychology: New research. New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc; 2006.
  10. Pargament P, Feuille M, Burdzy D. The Brief RCOPE: Current psychometric status of a short measure of religious coping. Religions 2011; 2(1): 51-76.
  11. Reynolds N, Murg S, Britton L, Guion K, Wolfe K, Gutierrez H. Spiritual coping predicts 5-year health outcomes in adolescents with cystic fibrosis. J Cyst Fibros 2014; 13(5): 593-600.
  12. Fallot RD, Heckman JP. Religious/spiritual coping among women trauma survivors with mental health and substance use disorders. J Behav Health Serv Res 2005; 32(2): 215-26.
  13. Pargament KI, Smith B, Koenig HG, Perez L. Patterns of positive and negative religious coping with major life stressors. J Sci Study Relig 1998; 37(4): 710-24.
  14. Talik EB. The adolescent religious coping questionnaire. Translation and cultural adaptation of Pargament’s RCOPE Scale for Polish adolescents. J Relig Health 2013; 52(1): 143-58.
  15. Aflakseir A, Coleman PG. Initial development of the Iranian religious coping scale. J Muslim Ment Health 2011; 6(1): 44-61.
  16. Baldacchino DR, Buhagiar A. Psychometric evaluation of the Spiritual Coping Strategies scale in English, Maltese, back-translation and bilingual versions. J Adv Nurs 2003; 42(6): 558-70.
  17. Saffari M, Koenig HG, Ghanizadeh G, Pakpour AH, Baldacchino DR. Psychometric properties of the Persian spiritual coping strategies scale in hemodialysis patients. J Relig Health 2014; 53(4): 1025-35.
  18. Pargament KI, Koenig HG, Perez LM. The many methods of religious coping: Development and initial validation of the RCOPE. J Clin Psychol 2000; 56(4): 519-43.
  19. Mohammadzadeh A, Najafi M. Factor analysis and validation of the Brief Religious Coping Scale (Brief-RCOPE) in Iranian university students. Ment Health Relig Cult 2017; 9(8): 911-19.
  20. Khodayarifard M, Ghobari Bonab B, Sohrabi F, Khorami Markani A, Zamanpour E, Raghebian R, et al. [Development of Spiritual Intelligence Scale (SQS): Theoretical base and operational issues]. University of Tehran, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Science; 2015. (Persian)
  21. Poursharifi H, Akbari Zardkhaneh S, Yaghubi H, Peyravi H, Hassan Abadi HR, Hamid Pour H, et al. [Psychometric properties of Iranian Mental Health Scale for students]. Applied psychological research quarterly 2012; 3(3): 61-84. (Persian)
  22. Meyers LS, Gamst GC, Guarino AJ. Applied multivariate research: Design and interpretation. London: SAGE; 2006.