The correlation between mothers’ knowledge of non-verbal communication on mother-child relationship

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant professor, Department of Psychology, Women Research Center, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran

2 Associate professor, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran

3 M.A. in counseling, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran

4 M.A. in Psychology, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Educational Sciences and Research University, Ghazvin, Ira


Introduction:  This study investigated the relationship between mothers’ knowledge of non-verbal communication and the relationship between mother and child. 
 Materials and Methods: The population of this correlational study consisted of mothers having 3-6-year child in the academic year of 2015-2016. Pre-school institutions in the five districts of Shiraz were studying. The sample of the study consisted of 154 women, were selected by multistage cluster sampling. The research instrument included test of non-verbal cue knowledge (TONCK) and the scale of the relationship between parent-child (PCRS). Data analyzed by descriptive and analytical statistics using SPSS software. 
 Results: The results showed that the mothers’ knowledge of non-verbal communication and overall positive mother-child relationship were not correlated. In addition, there was no significant correlation between mothers’ knowledge of non-verbal communication with subscales of the mother-child relationship, and mothers’ age and education. 
Conclusion: It seems that there is not significant correlation between the mothers’ knowledge of non-verbal communication and overall positive mother-child relationship.


  1. Gohnson G, Kent G, Leather J. Strengthening the parent-child relationship: A review of family interventions and their use in medical settings. J Child Care Health Dev 2005; 31(1): 25-32.
  2. Nazemian A, Shams Zarmehri Z. [Effectiveness of triple positive parenting program based on Iranian culture on mother–child relationship and children’s academic achievement. Journal of Mashhad University of Medical Science 2016; 59(2): 124-31. (Persian)
  3. Hwang K. Mother-child conflict interaction in the toddler years, behavior patterns and correlates. J Child Fam Stud 2007; 16(2): 219-41.
  4. Masumi Zare M, Etemadi O, Ahmadi SA. [Efficacy of an integrated approach (positive parenting and behavioral therapy) group therapy on improving mother-child relationship]. Journal of clinical psychology and counseling research 2012; 2(2): 117-32. (Persian)
  5. Bahadori Khosroshahi J. [Communication parental self-efficacy and self-forgiveness with mother-child interaction in mothers of children with mental retardation]. Journal of empowering exceptional children 2017; 8: 26-36. (Persian)
  6. Bani Asadi H, Bagheri M. [Knowledge of nonverbal communication and social competence]. Behavior 2011; 5: 43-50. (Persian)
  7. Wood J. [Interpersonal communication, psychology of social interaction] . Fyruzbakht M. (translator). Tehran: Mahtab; 2015. (Persian)
  8. Sabbahi Bigdeli M, Afazel M, Sayedi Arani SH, Mirhosseini F, Shahri S. [Students' viewpoints on advisors' nonverbal communication skills: A survey in schools of health and allied health sciences in Kashan University of Medical Sciences]. Iranian journal of medical education 2012; 12(9): 656-65. (Persian)
  9. Volfson R. [Children's body language]. Ebrahimi B. (translator). Tehran: The parent-teacher association; 2008. (Persian)
  10. Maghrebi Sinaki H, Hassanzadeh S, Arjmandnia A, Khademi M. [The effect of teaching communication skills to mothers of children with attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder on enhancement of parent-child interaction]. Journal of developmental psychology 2016; 13: 57-69. (Persian)
  11. Zahedi Kia H, Bagheri M, Dortaj F, Iranmanesh R. [The effect of education on the nonverbal communication, social competence of school students]. Social psychology research 2013; 3(11): 45-33. (Persian)
  12. Etemadi A, Gitipasand Z, Moradi M. [The effects of using solution – focused group therapy procedure on reduction mother – daughter conflicts in mothers]. Journal of family counseling and psychotherapy 2013; 3(4): 565-90. (Persian)
  13. Grebelsky-Lichtman T. Parental response to child's incongruence: Verbal versus nonverbal primacy in parent–child interaction. J Commun Monograph 2015; 82(4): 484-509.
  14. Lauren A, Maxim G, Nowicki J. Developmental association between nonverbal ability and social competence. J Philosophy Soc Psychol 2003; 2(10): 745-58.
  15. Abareshi Z, Tahmasian K, Mazaheri MA, Panaghi L. [The impact of psychosocial child development training program, done through improvement of mother-child interaction, on parental self-efficacy and relationship between mother and child under three years old]. Journal of research in psychological health 2009; 3(3): 49-58. (Persian)
  16. Rosip JC, Hall JA. Knowledge of nonverbal cue, gender and nonverbal decoding accurate. J Nonverb Behav 2004; 28(4): 286-97.
  17. Mofrad F. [Investigation of the effect of mother-child relationship on functional emotional development and language pragmatic development in pre-elementary children of 7th district Mashhad]. Dissertation. Mashhad, Mashhad University, 2011. (Persian)
  18. Roghanchi M, Jazayeri R, Etemadi O, Fathizade M, Momeni KM. [Effectiveness of group counseling based on resiliency on quality of parent-child relationship and family functioning in mother headed families]. Journal of family research 2017; 13(3): 423- 45. (Persian)
  19. Mehrabian A, Russell JA. The basic emotional impact of environments. J Percept Motor Skills 1974; 38(1): 283-301.
  20. Argyle M. [Psychology message body movements]. Faraji M. (translator). Tehran; Javane Roshd; 2014. (Persian)