Comparing spiritual intelligence, self-defense mechanism in female and males

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Group guidance and counseling, Islamic Azad University of Kermanshah, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran.


Introduction: Intelligence is one of the most important individual differences among people. Spiritual intelligence, performance with insight, calmness and kindness with maintaining inner and outer peace. The purpose of this study was to compare spiritual intelligence, self-control and defense mechanisms in females and males.
Methods: This is a descriptive and comparative study. The statistical society of the present study included all females and males in the second grade secondary school of Kermanshah in the academic year of 2015-2016. Using a randomized cluster sampling, 360 subjects (180 males and 180 females) were selected as sample volume. Spiritual intelligence, self-control questionnaire and defense mechanism were used to collect data. Data analysis was performed using statistical software.
Findings: The results showed that there was a significant difference in spiritual intelligence between the two groups of females and males in the spiritual life component. There is also a significant difference between self-control and prohibition of self-control between the two groups. There is a significant difference in defense mechanisms between the two groups in terms of reversal, replication, rejection and displacement.
Conclusion: Spiritual intelligence, by strengthening the developed defense mechanisms, allows individuals to face stressful situations when faced with stressful situations, and spiritual intelligence can be strengthened by the development of defense mechanisms provides an opportunity for the person to deal with stressful situations when faced with stressful situations.
Keywords: Spiritual Intelligence, Self-Control, Defense Mechanism.