Document Type : Research Paper
PhD. student in psychology, Educational Sciences and Psychology Department, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
PhD. in psychology, Professor of psychology, Educational Sciences and Psychology Department, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
PhD in psychopharmacology, Associate professor in psychology, Educational Sciences and Psychology Department, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
PhD. in cognitive psychology, Professor of psychology, Department of Psychology, Cognitive Division, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
Introduction: The concept of peace as a personality trait needs permanent patterns of behaviors, states and attitudes during different times and contexts (individual, interpersonal and international). The aim of this study was determining predictive variables in personal peacefulness with regards to gender and marital status.
Materials and Methods: The study consisted of four stages. In first stage, using a sample of 30 volunteer students, peace related variables were categorized. In second stage of the study, applying R-3.3.3 the correlation among 22 aforementioned variables was identified. In third stage, three multivariate regression analyses were calculated to predict personal peacefulness based on other peace-related variables using SPSS-23. In last stage, gender and marital status differences in answer to peace scales were analyzed using MANOVA on a sample of 206 students.
Results: The findings of the first stage of the study categorized peace-related variables in three groups (cognitive, emotional and relational). The findings of the second stage of the study showed the correlation matrix among variables. The results of the third stage demonstrated that conflict resolution, connectedness to nature, self-compassion and sense of humor were significant predictors of personal peacefulness in group of relational variables (R2 = 0.89). In group of emotional variables; hope, mind reading, aggression and harmony were significant predictors of personal peacefulness (R2 = 0.89). In group of cognitive variables; inhibition and need for cognition were significant predictors of personal peacefulness (R2 = 0.93). The findings of last stage of the study showed a significant main effect of marital status and gender for intra and inter-personal peacefulness. Further, the interaction between gender and marital status was significant only for interpersonal peacefulness.
Conclusion: In general terms, there are many psychological variables which may affect personal peacefulness. Discovering those variables leads us to new promoting peace-health educations. It is important to consider gender and marital status differences in designing more precise interventions.