1. Crockett LJ, Petersen A. Adolescent development: Health risks and opportunities for health promotion. New York: Oxford University; 1993: 13-37.
2. Fergusson DM, Horwood LJ. Transitions to cigarette smoking during adolescence. Addict Behav 1995; 20(5): 627-42.
3. Wan YH, Hu CL, Hao JH, Sun Y. Deliberate self-harm behaviors in Chinese adolescents and young adults. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2011; 20(10): 517-25.
4. Fisher HL, Moffitt TE, Houts RM, Belsky DW, Arseneault L, Caspi A. Bullying victimisation and risk of self harm in early adolescence: Longitudinal cohort study. BMJ 2012; 26: 344.
5. Shetgiri R, Lin H, Flores G. Trends in risk and protective factors for child bullying perpetration in the United States. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 2013; 44(1): 89-104.
6. Moran P, Coffey C, Romaniuk H, Olsson C, Borschmann R, Carlin JB, et al. The natural history of self-harm from adolescence to young adulthood: A population-based cohort study. Lancet 2012; 379(9812): 236-43.
7. Brunstein Klomek A, Sourander A, Gould M. The association of suicide and bullying in childhood to young adulthood: A review of cross-sectional and longitudinal research findings. Can J Psychiatry 2010; 55(5): 282-8.
8. Andover MS, Gibb BE. Non-suicidal self-injury, attempted suicide, and suicidal intent among psychiatric inpatients. Psychiatry Res 2007; 178(1): 101-5.
9. Mortimer JT. The benefits and risks of adolescent employment. Prev Res 2001; 17(2): 8-11.
10. Nock MK, Joiner TE Jr, Gordon KH, Lloyd-Richardson E, Prinstein MJ. Non-suicidal self-injury among adolescents: Diagnostic correlates and relation to suicide attempts. Psychiatry Res 2008; 144(1): 65-72.
11. Jacobson CM, Muehlenkamp JJ, Miller AL, Turner JB. Psychiatric impairment among adolescents engaging in different types of deliberate self-harm. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 2008; 37(2): 363-75.
12. Gratz KL, Latzman RD, Young J, Heiden LJ, Damon J, Hight T, et al. Deliberate self-harm among underserved adolescents: The moderating roles of gender, race, and school-level and association with borderline personality features. Personal Disord 2004; 3(1): 39-54.
13. Veenstra R, Lindenberg S, Munniksma A, Dijkstra JK. The complex relation between bullying, victimization, acceptance, and rejection: Giving special attention to status, affection, and sex differences. Child Dev 2010; 81(2): 480-6.
14. Lee HY, Kim YK. Gender effect of catechol-o-methyltransferase Val158Met polymorphism on suicidal behavior. Neuropsychobiology 2011; 63(3): 177-82.
15. Vieno A, Gini G, Santinello M. Different forms of bullying and their association to smoking and drinking behavior in Italian adolescents. J Sch Health 2011; 81(7): 393-9.
16. Tuisku V, Pelkonen M, Karlsson L. Alcohol use and psychiatric comorbid disorders predict deliberate self-harm behaviour and other suicidality among depressed adolescent outpatients in 1-year follow-up. Nord J Psychiatry 2011; 23(4): 265-75.
17. Bowes L, Arseneault L, Maughan B, Taylor A, Caspi A, Moffitt TE. School, neighborhood, and family factors are associated with children’s bullying involvement: A nationally representative longitudinal study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2005; 48(5): 545-53.
18. Idsoe T, Solli E, Cosmovici EM. Social psychological processes in family and school: More evidence on their relative etiological significance for bullying behavior. Aggress Behav 2006; 34(5): 460-74.
19. You J, Leung F. The role of depressive symptoms, family invalidation and behavioral impulsivity in the occurrence and repetition of non-suicidal self-injury in Chinese adolescents: A 2-year follow-up study. J Adolesc 2009; 35(2): 389-95.
20. Tsai MH, Chen YH, Chen CD, Hsiao CY, Chien CH. Deliberate self-harm by Taiwanese adolescents. Acta Paediatr 2011; 100(11): 117-28.
21. Scoliers G, Portzky G, Madge N, Hewitt A, Hawton K, de Wilde EJ, et al. Reasons for adolescent deliberate self-harm: A cry of pain and/or a cry for help? Findings from the child and adolescent self-harm in Europe (CASE) study. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2009; 44(8): 601-7.
22. Blood GW, Blood IM, Tramontana GM, Sylvia AJ, Boyle MP, Motzko GR. Self-reported experience of bullying of students who stutter: Relations with life satisfaction, life orientation, and self-esteem. Percept Mot Skills 2011; 113(2): 353-64.
23. Seeds PM, Harkness KL, Quilty LC. Parental maltreatment, bullying, and adolescent depression: Evidence for the mediating role of perceived social support. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 2010; 39(5): 681-92.
24. Wahl RA, Cotton S, Harrison-Monroe P. Spirituality, adolescent suicide, and the juvenile justice system. South Med J 2008; 101(7): 711-5.
25. Mohammad Poorasl A, Vahidi R, Fakhari A, Rostami F, Dastghiri S. Substance abuse in Iranian high school students. Addict Behav 2007; 32(3): 622-7.
26. Momtazi S, Rawson R. Substance abuse among Iranian high school students. Curr Opin Psychiatry 2010; 23(3): 221-6.
27. Alireza Ayatollahi S, Mohammadpoorasl A, Rajaeifard A. Predicting the stages of smoking acquisition in the male students of Shiraz’s high schools, 2003. Nicotine Tob Res 2005; 7(6): 845-51.
28. Prinstein MJ, Heilbron N, Guerry JD, Franklin JC, Rancourt D, Simon V, et al. Peer influence and nonsuicidal self injury: Longitudinal results in community and clinically-referred adolescent samples. J Abnorm Child Psychol 2010; 38(5): 669-82.
29. Brunner R, Parzer P, Haffner J, Steen R, Roos J, Klett M, et al. Prevalence and psychological correlates of occasional and repetitive deliberate self-harm in adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2007; 161(7): 641-9.
30. You J, Leung F, Fu K. Exploring the reciprocal relations between nonsuicidal self-injury, negative emotions and relationship problems in Chinese adolescents: A longitudinal cross-lag study. J Abnorm Child Psychol 2011; doi: 10.1007/s10802-011-9597-0
31. Shek DT, Yu L. Self-harm and suicidal behaviors in Hong Kong adolescents: Prevalence and psychosocial correlates. Scientific world journal 2011; 20(10): 517-25.
32. Muehlenkamp JJ, Claes L, Havertape L, Plener PL. International prevalence of adolescent non-suicidal self-injury and deliberate self-harm. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health 2012; 6: 10.
33. Ramya SG, Kulkarni ML. Bullying among school children: Prevalence and association with common symptoms in childhood. Indian J Pediatr 2011; 78(3): 307-10.
34. Lemstra M, Rogers M, Redgate L, Garner M, Moraros J. Prevalence, risk indicators and outcomes of bullying among on-reserve First Nations youth. Can J Public Health 2011; 102(6): 462-6.
35. Ortega A, Hogh A, Pejtersen JH, Feveile H, Olsen O. Prevalence of workplace bullying and risk groups: a representative population study. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2009; 82(3): 417-26.
36. Hughes JR. Smoking and suicide: A brief overview. Drug Alcohol Depend 2008; 98(3): 169-78.
37. Schneider B, Wetterling T, Georgi K, Bartusch B, Schnabel A, Blettner M. Smoking differently modifies suicide risk of affective disorders, substance use disorders, and social factors. J Affect Disord 2009; 112(1-3): 165-73.
38. Chen K, Sheth AJ, Elliott DK, Yeager A. Prevalence and correlates of past-year substance use, abuse, and dependence in a suburban community sample of high-school students. Addict Behav 2004; 29(2): 413-23.
39. O'Connor RC, Rasmussen S, Miles J, Hawton K. Self-harm in adolescents: Self-report survey in schools in Scotland. Br J Psychiatry 2009; 194(1): 68-72.
40. Mohammadpoorasl A, Fakhari A, Rostami F, Vahidi R. Predicting the initiation of substance abuse in Iranian adolescents. Addict Behav 2007; 32(12): 3153-9.
41. Wolke D, Woods S, Stanford K, Schulz H. Bullying and victimization of primary school children in England and Germany: Prevalence and school factors. Br J Psychol 2001; 92(Pt 4): 673-96.
42. Kumpulainen K, Räsänen E, Henttonen I. Children involved in bullying: Psychological disturbance and the persistence of the involvement. Child Abuse Negl 1999; 23(12): 1253-62.
43. Scheithauer H, Hess M, Schultze-Krumbholz A, Bull HD. School-based prevention of bullying and relational aggression in adolescence: the fairplayer.manual. New Dir Youth Dev 2012; 133: 55-70.