طراحی درمان ترکیبی خانواده‌محور مبتنی بر مدل تحول یکپارچه‌ی انسان و مقایسه‌ی اثر بخشی آن با بازی‌درمانی فلورتایم بر کارکرد تحولی خانواده‌ و تحول هیجانی-کارکردی کودکان مبتلا به اختلال طیف اوتیسم

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای روان‌شناسی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 دانشیار گروه روان شناسی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 استادیار گروه روان شناسی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

4 دانشیار روان پزشکی کودک و نوجوان، مرکز تحقیقات روان پزشکی و علوم رفتاری، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی مشهد

چکیده

مقدمه: اختلال طیف اوتیسم از ناتوانی‌های عمده‌ی دوران کودکی است که زمینه‌ساز فشارهای روانی بسیاری برای کودک و خانواده‌ می‌باشد. با توجه به تاثیر نامطلوب بسیاری که این اختلال بر سیستم خانواده دارد، دراین پژوهش سعی شده است تا بر مبنای مدل تحول یکپارچه‌ی انسان که رویکرد نوینی در درمان این اختلال است، درمانی خانواده-محور طراحی شود، در این درمان به منظور تقویت توانمندی‌های کودک، کارکرد خانواده به ‌عنوان یک واحد کلی، هدف قرار می‌گیرد و اثربخشی آن در ترکیب با بازی‌درمانی فلورتایم، بررسی می‌شود.
روش‌ کار: این مطالعه در چهارچوب یک طرح تک آزمودنی در طول 5 ماه روی 12 کودک 8-3 ساله‌ی مبتلا به اختلال طیف اوتیسم و خانواده‌های آن‌ها اجرا و اطلاعات در سه مرحله‌ی پیش‌آزمون، پس‌آزمون و پی‌گیری جمع‌آوری شد. برای بررسی اثربخشی درمان از ابزار محقق ساخته‌ی کارکرد تحولی خانواده، پرسش‌نامه‌ی سنجش هیجانی–کارکردی و پرسش‌نامه‌ی تحول هیجانی– کارکردی استفاده شد.
یافته‌ ها: درصد بهبودی کارکرد تحولی خانواده در گروه درمان ترکیبی خانواده‌محور به ویژه در حوزه‌های صمیمیت، جذب شدن، انضباط و تحول هیجانی-کارکردی کودکان نیز در سطوح خودتنظیمی، دلبستگی و مبادله‌ی دوسویه از 50 درصد بیشتر و میزان بهبودی از نظر بالینی معنی‌دار بود. اندازه اثر درمان ترکیبی نیز بالاتراز 80/0 برآورد شد.
نتیجه‌ گیری: بنا بر نتایج درمان ترکیبی خانواده‌محور می‌تواند اثربخشی بازی درمانی فلورتایم را افزایش دهد و به عنوان یک رویکرد درمانی اثربخش در درمان این اختلال استفاده شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


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